Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Eye cancer can refer to any cancer that starts in the eye. The most common type of eye cancer is melanoma. It usually affects the uvea, which is the layer between the retina and the white of the eye. But there are other types of cancer that affect different kinds of cells in the eye.
What causes eye cancer/tumor?
Certain changes in the DNA inside cells can cause the cells to become cancer. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells that makes up our genes, the instructions for how our cells function. But DNA can also influence our risk for developing certain diseases, such as some kinds of cancer.
We, CAN-C provide eye tumor/cancer treatment in Bangalore.
Here, you will find information about signs and symptoms, causes and risk factors, types, diagnosis, staging and prevention about eye tumor.
Many people with eye melanoma don't have symptoms unless the cancer grows in certain parts of the eye or becomes more advanced. Signs and symptoms of eye cancer/tumor can include:
Problems with vision (blurry vision or sudden loss of vision)
Floaters (spots or squiggles drifting in the field of vision) or flashes of light
Visual field loss (losing part of your field of sight)
A growing dark spot on the colored part of the eye (iris)
Change in the size or shape of the pupil (the dark spot in the center of the eye)
Change in position of the eyeball within its socket
Bulging of the eye
Change in the way the eye moves within the socket
Pain is rare unless the tumor has grown extensively outside the eye.
Using only the best technology and techniques available, we offer eye tumor treatment in Bangalore.
A risk factor is anything that increases your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. But having a known risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean that you will get the disease. And many people who get the disease may have few or no known risk factors. Some of the risk factors for eye tumor/cancer are:
Race/ethnicity: The risk of eye cancer is much higher in whites.
Eye color: People with light colored eyes are somewhat more likely to develop uveal melanoma of the eye than are people with darker eye and skin color.
Age and gender: Eye melanomas can occur at any age, but the risk goes up as people get older. Eye melanoma is slightly more common in men than in women.
Certain inherited conditions: People with dysplastic nevus syndrome, who have many abnormal moles on the skin, are at increased risk of skin melanoma. They also seem to have a higher risk of developing melanoma of the eye. People with abnormal brown spots on the uvea (known as oculodermal melanocytosis or nevus of Ota) also have an increased risk of developing uveal eye melanoma.
Moles: Different types of moles (nevi) in the eye or on the skin have been associated with an increased risk of uveal eye melanoma. In the eye, these include choroidal, giant choroidal, and iris nevi; on the skin, atypical nevi, common nevi of the skin, and freckles. An eye condition, known as primary acquired melanosis (PAM), is a risk factor for conjunctival melanoma.
Family history: Uveal eye melanomas can run in some families, but this is very rare.
Types of eye cancer/tumor are:
Cancers in the eye (intraocular cancers): Cancers that affect the eye itself are called intraocular (within the eye) cancers. Cancers that start in the eye are called primary intraocular cancers, and secondary intraocular cancers if they start somewhere else and spread to the eye.
In adults, the most common primary intraocular cancers are: Melanoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
In children, the most common primary intraocular cancers are: Retinoblastoma, a cancer that starts in cells in the retina (the light-sensing cells in the back of the eye), Medulloepithelioma (this is the second most common, but is still extremely rare.)
Secondary intraocular cancers (cancers that start somewhere else in the body and then spread to the eye) are not truly "eye cancers," but they are actually more common than primary intraocular cancers. The most common cancers that spread to the eye are breast cancers and lung cancers. Most often these cancers spread to the part of the eyeball called the uvea.
1. Intraocular melanoma (melanoma of the eye): Intraocular melanoma is the most common type of cancer that develops within the eyeball in adults, but it is still fairly rare. Melanomas that start in the skin are much more common than melanomas that start in the eye. Melanomas develop from pigment-making cells called melanocytes. When melanoma develops in the eye, it is usually in the uvea (uveal melanomas) and rarely in the conjunctiva (conjunctival melanomas).
Uveal melanomas: The uvea is the middle layer of the eyeball. Most of the other intraocular melanomas start in the iris. These are the easiest for a person (or their doctor) to see because they often start in a dark spot on the iris that has been present for many years and then begins to grow. These melanomas usually are slow growing, and they rarely spread to other parts of the body. Uveal melanomas can spread through the blood and commonly spread to the liver.
2. Conjunctival melanomas: The conjunctiva is a thin clear covering over the sclera. These melanomas are extremely rare. They tend to be more aggressive and grow into nearby structures. Because they can spread through the blood and the lymph system, they can also spread to distant organs like the lungs, liver, or brain where the cancer can become life-threatening.
Orbital and adnexal cancers: The orbit consists of the tissues surrounding the eyeball. These include muscles that move the eyeball in different directions and the nerves attached to the eye. Cancers of these tissues are called orbital cancers.
Adnexal (accessory) structures include the eyelids and tear glands. Cancers that develop in these tissues are called adnexal cancers. Cancers of the orbit and adnexa develop from tissues such as muscle, nerve, and skin around the eyeball and are like cancers in other parts of the body. For example:
1. Cancers of the eyelid are usually skin cancers.
2. For cancer affecting the eye muscles.
3. Lymphomas that start in the eye.
We are renowned in providing top-quality treatment (in Bangalore) for eye tumor.
Diagnosis of eye cancer/tumor includes:
Eye exam: Examination of the eye by an ophthalmologist (a medical doctor specializing in eye diseases) is often the most important first step in diagnosing melanoma of the eye. You will be asked about symptoms and checked your vision and eye movement. The doctor will also look for enlarged blood vessels on the outside of the eye, which can be a sign of a tumor inside the eye. Some special instruments will be used to get a good look inside the eye for a tumor or other abnormality.
Imaging tests: Imaging tests use sound waves, x-rays, or magnetic fields, or radioactive particles to create pictures of the inside of your body. These tests might be done for a number of reasons, including: to help find a suspicious area that might be cancer, to help determine the stage (extent) of the cancer, to help show if treatment is working, to look for possible signs of cancer coming back after treatment.
Ultrasound: Ultrasound is a very common test used to help diagnose eye melanomas. Ultrasound uses sound waves and their echoes to make pictures of internal organs or masses.
Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM): This is a special type of ultrasound that uses high-energy sound waves to create very detailed images of the front parts of the eye.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT): This test is similar to an ultrasound, but it uses light waves instead of sound waves to create very detailed images of the back of the eye.
Fluorescein angiography: For this test, an orange fluorescent dye (fluorescein) is injected into the bloodstream through a vein in the arm. Pictures of the back of the eye are then taken using a special light that makes the dye fluoresce (glow).
Chest x-ray: If you have been diagnosed with eye melanoma, an x-ray of your chest may be done to see if the cancer has spread to your lungs.
Computed tomography (CT) scan: A CT scan combines many x-rays to make detailed cross-sectional images of parts of the body. This scan is sometimes used to see if a melanoma has spread outside of the eye into nearby structures. It may also be used to look for spread of the cancer to distant organs such as the liver.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan: MRI scans are particularly useful for looking at eye tumors and spread of tumor outside the eye orbit in places like the liver. MRIs provide detailed images of soft tissues in the body, but use radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays.
Biopsy: For most types of cancer, the diagnosis is made by removing a small piece of the tumor and looking at it in the lab for cancer cells. This is known as a biopsy. Sometimes, a biopsy may be useful to check for certain gene mutations (changes) that can predict outcomes (prognosis) as well as help choose targeted drugs for your cancer. Also, certain eye melanomas can spread for many years before they are diagnosed so doing a biopsy of a worrisome area early may be helpful.
Different types of biopsies can be done for eye melanoma depending on where it is located including: A FNA (fine needle aspiration): Using a thin needle to remove a small sample of aqueous humor (the liquid between the cornea and the lens), an incisional or excisional biopsy (cutting out either part of or all of the tumor), a fine needle biopsy of the tumor: cells from the tumor are sucked up into a syringe through a small needle and examined in the lab.
Blood tests: Blood tests may be done once a diagnosis is made to see how well your liver is working if the cancer has spread to the liver.
After someone is diagnosed with eye cancer, it is required to figure out if it has spread, and if so, how far. This process is called staging. The stage of a cancer describes how much cancer is in the body. It helps determine how serious the cancer is and how best to treat it.
How is the stage determined?
The cancer stage is determined from the results of eye exams, imaging tests (ultrasound, CT or MRI scan, etc.) and other tests.
The most common systems used to describe the stages of eye melanomas is the TNM system which is based on 3 key pieces of information:
The size and extent of the main tumor (T): How large is the eye tumor? Has it invaded into nearby structures?
The spread to nearby lymph nodes (N): Has the cancer spread to the nearby lymph nodes around the ear or neck? Has the cancer spread to (not grown into) other parts of the eye?
The spread (metastasis) to distant sites (M): Has the cancer spread to distant parts of the body? (The most common site of spread is the liver.)
We at CAN-C are specialized in rendering eye cancer/tumor treatment in Bangalore and experience a better quality of life.
There are things you can do that might reduce your risk of eye cancers:
Limiting your exposure to intense UV Light: Covering up with protective hats and clothing, and using sunscreen will reduce risk of getting eye cancer/tumor.
Eat healthy diet: Poor diet, physical inactivity, and carrying too much weight linked to higher risks of eye and other cancers. So, eat smart and focus diets away from sugars and towards fruits and vegetables. Processed foods, red meat and alcohol should all be limited, too.
Stay Active and Exercise Regularly
Reduce psychological stress can affect a tumor's ability to grow and spread
Consult an Ophthalmologist Regularly: Generally, yearly checkups are helpful for prevention.
If you have been diagnosed with an eye cancer, it is necessary to discuss your treatment options. It's important to think carefully about your choices. You will want to weigh the benefits of each treatment option against the possible risks and side effects. Depending on the type and stage of the eye tumor/cancer and other factors, treatment options for eye cancer or tumor might include:
Surgery is used to treat some eye melanomas.
Types of surgery for eye cancer are: The type of surgery depends on the location and size of the tumor, how far the tumor has spread, and a person's overall health. The operations used to treat people with eye melanoma include:
1. Iridectomy: Removal of part of the iris (the colored part of the eye). This might be an option for very small iris melanomas.
2. Iridotrabeculectomy: Removal of part of the iris, plus a small piece of the outer part of the eyeball. This might also be an option for small iris melanomas.
3. Iridocyclectomy: Removal of a portion of the iris and the ciliary body. This operation is also used for small iris melanomas.
4. Transscleral resection: Surgically removing just a melanoma of the ciliary body or choroid. It is hard to remove the tumor without damaging the rest of the eye. This could lead to severe vision problems.
5. Enucleation: Removal of the entire eyeball. This is used for larger melanomas, but it may also be done for some smaller melanomas if vision in the eye has already been lost or if other treatment options would destroy useful vision in the eye, anyway.
6. Orbital exenteration: Removal of the eyeball and some surrounding structures such as parts of the eyelid and muscles, nerves, and other tissues inside the eye socket. This surgery is not common, but it might sometimes be used for melanomas that have grown outside the eyeball into nearby structures.
Being the very best cancer treatment centre in Bangalore, we provide a wide range of treatments for eye tumor/cancer.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. It is a common treatment for eye melanoma. Radiation therapy can often save some vision in the eye. Sometimes vision might be lost if the radiation damages other parts of the eye. An advantage over surgery is that the eye structure is preserved, which can result in a better appearance after treatment. Different types of radiation therapy can be used to treat eye cancers.
1. Brachytherapy (Plaque therapy): In this form of radiation therapy, small seeds of radioactive material will be put directly into or very close to the cancer. The radiation from the seeds travels a very short distance, so most of it will be focused only on the tumor. This has become the most common radiation treatment for most eye melanomas. In many cases it is as effective as surgery to remove the eye (enucleation).
An operation is needed to put the plaque (a small round piece of metal that holds the radioactive seeds) in place, depending on the size of the tumor and the strength of the radiation source. Another surgery to remove the plaque is then done.
This treatment cures small to medium size tumors and can preserve vision in some patients, depending on what part of the eye the melanoma is in. The outlook for vision is not as good if the tumor is very close to the optic nerve, which carries visual images from the eye to the brain.
2. External beam radiation therapy: In this approach, radiation from a source outside the body is focused on the cancer. For eye melanomas, the use of this type of radiation therapy is generally limited to newer methods that focus narrow beams of radiation on the tumor.
Proton beam radiation therapy: Instead of using x-rays as in standard radiation therapy, this approach aims proton beams toward the cancer. Unlike x-rays, which release energy both before and after they hit their target, protons cause little damage to tissues they pass through and release their energy only after traveling a certain distance. This type of radiation treatment is used more often for larger tumors and for tumors that are closer to the optic nerve.
Stereotactic radiosurgery: This type of treatment delivers a large, precise radiation dose to the tumor area in a single session. It is not used as often as brachytherapy or proton beam therapy as the initial treatment for eye melanomas.
CAN-C: Top cancer centre dedicated to the eye tumor or eye cancer treatment in Bangalore.
Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs to treat cancer. The drugs can be injected into a certain part of the body (such as the eye), or they can be injected into a vein (with an IV) or taken by mouth (as a pill) to reach most of the body, making this treatment very useful for cancers that have spread.
Melanoma usually does not respond well to standard chemo drugs. Chemo is used only when the cancer has become widespread. If chemo is used, the treatment is generally the same as for melanoma of the skin.
Melanoma that has spread outside of the eye can be hard to treat, and unfortunately standard chemotherapy drugs often are not very helpful.
In recent years, newer types of drugs are developed to treat advanced melanomas. These newer drugs generally fall into 2 groups: immunotherapy and targeted therapy.
Immunotherapy drugs: These drugs work to stimulate the body's own immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively. The drugs pembrolizumab (Keytruda®) and ipilimumab (Yervoy®) have shown benefit in some people with uveal eye melanoma.
Targeted drugs: Some newer drugs target parts of melanoma cells that make them different from normal cells. This mutation is very uncommon in uveal melanomas, but in people who have it, these drugs might be helpful. These drugs are also being tested in people with conjunctival melanoma.
We at CAN-C are highly experienced in providing eye tumor treatment in Bangalore.
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